Theoretical and Methodological Approaches

Related Discourses, Practices, and Institutions in Japan and China

Empirical Studies in Historical Perspective

A Selected Bibliography of Protecting the Weak in East Asia, Past and Present


Bowler, Peter J. (1983), The Eclipse of Darwinism: Anti-Darwinian Evolution Theories in the Decades around 1900, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Bowler, Peter J. (1993), Darwinism, Twayne's Studies in Intellectual and Cultural History, no. 6, Twayne Publishers; Maxwell Macmillan Canada; Maxwell Macmillan International, New York, Toronto, New York.

Bowler, Peter J. (2009), Evolution: The History of an Idea, 25th anniversary ed, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., London.

Bu, Liping, Stapleton, Darwin H. and Yip, Ka-che (2014), Science, Public Health, and the State in Modern Asia, Routledge, London.

Chung, Yuehtsen J. (2002), Struggle for National Survival: Eugenics in Sino-Japanese Contexts, 1896-1945, East Asia History, Politics, Sociology, Culture, Routledge, New York.

Chung, Yuehtsen J. (2014), “Better Science and Better Race? Social Darwinism and Chinese Eugenics”, Isis, Vol. 105 No. 4, pp. 793–802.

Claeys, Gregory (2000), “The "Survival of the Fittest" and the Origins of Social Darwinism”, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 61 No. 2, pp. 223–240.

Cross, Sherrie (1996), “Prestige and Comfort: The Development of Social Darwinism in Early Meiji Japan, and the Role of Edward Sylvester Morse”, Annals of Science, Vol. 53 No. 4, pp. 323–344.

Hawkins, Mike (1998), Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, Repr, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Hodge, M. J. S and Radick, Gregory (2003), The Cambridge Companion to Darwin, The Series of Cambridge Companions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, New York.

Hofstadter, Richard (1992), Social Darwinism in American Thought, Beacon Press, Boston.

Hung, Kuang‐chi (2009), “Alien Science, Indigenous Thought and Foreign Religion: Reconsidering the Reception of Darwinism in Japan”, Intellectual History Review, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 231–250.

Kowner, Rotem (2000), “'Lighter than Yellow, but not Enough': Western Discourse on the Japanese 'Race', 1854-1904”, The Historical Journal, Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 103–131.

Kowner, Rotem and Demel, Walter (Eds.) (2014), Race and Racism in Modern East Asia: Western and Eastern Constructions, Brill, Leiden.

Müller, Gotelind (2001), China, Kropotkin und der Anarchismus: Eine Kulturbewegung im China des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts unter dem Einfluss des Westens und japanischer Vorbilder, Freiburger fernöstliche Forschungen, Bd. 5, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.

Murakami, Junʼichi (2006), “Sozialdarwinismus im Japan der Meiji-Zeit: Eine konservative Wende des Frühliberalismus?”, in Marutschke, H.P., Ishibe, M. and Murakami, J. (Eds.), Beiträge zur modernen japanischen Rechtsgeschichte, Juristische Zeitgeschichte. Abt. 1, Allgemeine Reihe, BWV, Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 53–63.

Pusey, James R. (1983), China and Charles Darwin, Harvard East Asian Monographs, Vol. 100, Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University; Distributed by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Pusey, James R. (1988), Lu Xun and Evolution, Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology, Suny Press, New York.

Shimao, Eikoh (2006), “Darwinism in Japan, 1877–1927”, Annals of Science, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 93–102.

Schwartz, Benjamin I. (1969), In Search of Wealth and Power: Yen Fu and the West, Harper Torchbooks, Cambridge.

Takezawa, Yasuko I. (2011), Racial Representations in Asia, Kyoto University Press; Trans Pacific Press, Kyoto, Melbourne.

Unoura, Hiroshi (1999), “Samurai Darwinism: Hiroyuki Katô and the Reception of Darwin's Theory in Modern Japan from the 1880s to the 1900s”, History and Anthropology, Vol. 11 No. 2-3, pp. 235–255.

Weikart, Richard (1993), “The Origins of Social Darwinism in Germany, 1859-1895”, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 54 No. 3, pp. 469–488.