Publications 2022

WormRuler: A software to track body length used to characterize a super red-shifted channelrhodopsin in Caenorhabditis elegans

Seidenthal M*; Vettkötter D* and Gottschalk A (2022). microPublication Biology; 10.17912/micropub.biology.000607.

All-optical closed-loop voltage clamp for precise control of muscles and neurons in live animals

Bergs A, Liewald JF, Rodriguez-Rozada S, Liu Q, Wirt C, Bessel A, Zeitzschel N, Durmaz H, Nozownik A, Vierock J, Bargmann CI, Hegemann P, Simon Wiegert J and Gottschalk A (2022) bioRxiv 2022.06.03.494532;

Rapid and reversible optogenetic silencing of synaptic transmission by clustering of synaptic vesicles

Vettkötter D, Schneider M, Liewald JF, Zeiler S, Guldan J, Watanabe S and Gottschalk A (2022) bioRxiv 2022.06.13.495966;

Microbial Rhodopsin Optogenetic Tools: Application for Analyses of Synaptic Transmission and of Neuronal Network Activity in Behavior

Bergs A, Henss T, Glock C, Nagpal J and Gottschalk A (2022) C. elegans: 89-115;

Photoactivated Adenylyl Cyclases as Optogenetic Modulators of Neuronal Activity

Henss T, Schneider M, Vettkötter D, Costa WS, Liewald JF and Gottschalk A (2022) cAMP Signaling: 61-76;

Publications 2021

BiPOLES is an optogenetic tool developed for bidirectional dual-color control of neurons

Vierock J, Rodriguez-Rozada S, Dieter A, Pieper F, Sims R, Tenedini F, Bergs ACF, Bendifallah I, Zhou F, Zeitzschel N, Ahlbeck J, Augustin S, Sauter K, Papagiakoumou E, Gottschalk A, Soba P, Emiliani V, Engel AK, Hegemann P and Wiegert JS (2022) Nature communications 12 (1): 1-20

RIM and RIM-binding protein localize synaptic Cav2 channels in a differential manner to regulate transmission in neuronal circuits bioRxiv

Optogenetic tools for manipulation of cyclic nucleotides, functionally coupled to CNG‐channels. British Journal of Pharmacology

Henss T, Nagpal J, Gao S, Scheib U, Pieragnolo A, Hirschhäuser A, Schneider-Warme F, Hegemann P, Nagel G and Gottschalk A (2021) British Journal of Pharmacology, 18 March 2021;

Synapsin Is Required for Dense Core Vesicle Capture and cAMP-Dependent Neuropeptide Release

Yu S-c, Liewald JF, Shao J, Steuer Costa W and Gottschalk A (2021) Journal of Neuroscience 41 (19), 4187-4201;

Publications 2020

Context-dependent operation of neural circuits underlies a navigation behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. PNAS

Ikeda M, Nakano S, Giles AC, Xu L, Steuer Costa W, Gottschalk A and Mori I. (2020) , online 2 March 2020. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1918528117

Transcriptional adaptation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Serobyan V, Kontarakis Z, El-Brolosy MA, Welker JM, Tolstenkov O, Saadeldein AM, Retzer N, Gottschalk A, Wehman AM and Stainier DYR (2020)  eLife 9:e50014. doi: 10.7554/eLife.50014

RPamide neuropeptides NLP-22 and NLP-2 act through GnRH-like receptors to promote sleep and wakefulness in C. elegans.

Van der Auwera P, Frooninckx L, Buscemi K, Vance RT, Watteyne J, Mirabeau O, Temmerman L, De Haes W, Fancalszky L, Gottschalk A, Raizen DM, Nelson MD, Schoofs L and Beets I. (2020)  Sci Rep 10: 9929,

BIPOLES: a tool for bidirectional dual-color optogenetic control of neurons.

Vierock J, Rodriguez-Rozada S, Pieper F, Dieter A, Bergs A, Zeitzschel N, Ahlbeck J, Sauter K, Gottschalk A, Engel AK, Hegemann P and  Wiegert S. (2020)  bioRxiv, 16th July 2020. doi:

Publications 2019

Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling Promotes Sleep through a Combined Series and Parallel Neural Circuit. Curr. Biol.

Konietzna J, Fritz M, McWhirter R, Leha A, Palumbos S, Steuer Costa W, Oranth A, Gottschalk A, Miller III D, Hajnal A and Bringmann H. (2019)  December 12 online;

Synapsin is required for dense core vesicle capture and cAMP-dependent neuropeptide release.

Yu S-c*, Steuer Costa W*, Liewald JF*, Shao J and Gottschalk A. (2019)  bioRxiv November 12th. doi:

A GABAergic and peptidergic sleep neuron as a locomotion stop neuron with compartmentalized Ca2+ dynamics.

Steuer Costa W*, Van der Auwera P*, Glock C, Liewald JF, Bach M, Schüler C, Wabnig S, Oranth A, Masurat F, Bringmann H, Schoofs L, Stelzer EHK, Fischer S and Gottschalk A. (2019) Nat. Communic. 10: 4095.

Rhodopsin-based voltage imaging tools for use in muscles and neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Azimi Hashemi N*, Bergs ACF*, Schüler C, Scheiwe AR, Steuer Costa W, Bach M, Liewald JF and Gottschalk A. (2019)  PNAS 116: 17051-60.

Robust and sensitive GFP-based cGMP sensor for real time imaging in intact Caenorhabditis elegans.

Woldemariam S, Nagpal J, Hill T, Li J, Schneider M, Shankar R, Futey M, Varshney A, Ali N, Mitchell J, Andersen K, Barsi-Rhyne B, Tran A, Steuer Costa W, Krzyzanowski M, Yu Y, Brueggemann C, Hamilton S, Ferkey D, VanHoven M, Sengupta P, Gottschalk A and L'Etoile N. (2019)  Genetics 213: 59-77.

Optogenetischer Werkzeugkasten für neue experimentelle Ansätze.

Bergs ACF*, Liewald J and Gottschalk A. 2019.  BIOspektrum 4.19, pp398

A photoactivatable botulinum toxin for inducible control of neurotransmission.

Liu Q, Sinnen BL, Boxer EE, Schneider MW, Grybko MJ, Buchta WC, Gibson ES, Wysoczynski CL, Ford CP, Gottschalk A, Aoto J, Tucker CL and Kennedy MJ. (2019) Neuron 101: 863-875.

Publications 2018

Oranth A*, Schultheis C*, Tolstenkov O, Erbguth K, Nagpal J, Hain D, Brauner M, Wabnig S, Steuer Costa W, McWhirther R, Zels S, Palumbos S, Miller DM III, Beets I, Gottschalk A. (2018) Food sensation modulates locomotion by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling in a distributed neuronal network. Neuron 100: 1414-1428.

Brown J, Behnam R, Coddington L, Tervo DGR, Martin K, Proskurin M, Kuleshova E, Park J, Phillips J, Bergs ACF, Gottschalk A, Dudman JT, Karpova AY. Expanding the Optogenetics Toolkit by Topological Inversion of Rhodopsins. Cell 175: 1131-1140.

Ikeda M, Nakano S, Giles AC, Steuer Costa W, Gottschalk A, Mori I. Circuit Degeneracy Facilitates Robustness and Flexibility of Navigation Behavior in C. elegans. bioRxiv August 5, 2018, doi:

Tolstenkov O, Van der Auwera P, Steuer Costa W, Bazhanova O, Gemeinhard T, Bergs ACF, Gottschalk A. (2018) Functionally asymmetric motor neurons contribute to coordinating locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans. eLife 7: e34997: PDF

Yu S-c*, Jánosi B*, Liewald J, Wabnig S, Gottschalk A. (2018) Endophilin A and B join forces with clathrin to mediate synaptic vesicle recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Front Molec Neurosci 11: 196. (17.5.2018):

Bergs ACF, Schultheis C, Fischer E, Tsunoda SP, Erbguth K, Husson SJ, Govorunova E, Spudich JL, Nagel G, Gottschalk A*, Liewald JF*. (2018) Rhodopsin optogenetic toolbox v2.0 for light-sensitive excitation and inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE 13(2): e0191802.

Publications 2017

Fischer E, Gottschalk A*, Schueler C* (2017) An optogenetic arrhythmia model to study catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mutations. Sci. Rep. 7: 17514 PDF

Steuer Costa W, Yu S-c, Liewald JF, Gottschalk A. (2017) Fast cAMP modulation of neurotransmission via neuropeptide signals and vesicle loading. Curr. Biol. 27: 495-507

Publications 2016

Safdie G, Liewald JF, Kagan S, Battat E, Gottschalk A, Treinin M. (2016) RIC-3 phosphorylation enables dual regulation of excitation and inhibition of C. elegans muscle. Mol. Biol. Cell 27:2994-3003.

Frank JA, Yushchenko DA, Hodson DJ, Lipstein N, Nagpal J, Rutter GA, Rhee J-S, Gottschalk A, Brose N, Schultz C, Trauner D. (2016) Photoswitchable diacylglycerols enable optical control of protein kinase C. Nat. Chem. Biol. 12: 755-62

Publications 2015

Schüler C*, Fischer E*, Shaltiel L, Steuer Costa W, Gottschalk A. (2015) Arrhythmogenic effects of mutated L-type Ca2+-channels on an optogenetically paced muscular pump in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sci. Rep. 5:14427 | DOI: 10.1038/srep14427. PDF

Glock C, Nagpal J, Gottschalk A (2015) Microbial Rhodopsin Optogenetic Tools: Application for Analyses of Synaptic Transmission and of Neuronal Network Activity in Behavior. In: C. elegans: Methods and Applications, Methods Mol. Biol. (Biron D, Haspel G, eds.), vol. 1327, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-2842-2_8. 

Gao S#, Nagpal J#, Schneider M, Kozjak-Pavlovic J, Nagel G*, Gottschalk A*. (2015) Optogenetic manipulation of cGMP in cells and animals by the tightly light-regulated guanylyl-cyclase opsin CyclOp. Nat. Communic. 6: 8046. PDF

Hermann A, Liewald JF, Gottschalk A. (2015) A photosensitive degron enables acute light-induced protein degradation in the nervous system. Curr. Biol. 25: R733–R752

Wabnig S, Liewald JF, Yu S-c, Gottschalk A (2015) High-throughput all-optical analysis of synaptic transmission and synaptic vesicle recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0135584. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135584 PDF

Damijonaitis A, Broichhagen J, Urushima T, Hüll K, Nagpal J, Laprell L, Schönberger M, Woodmansee DH, Rafiq A, Sumser MP, Kummer W, Gottschalk A, Trauner D. (2015 Mar 5) AzoCholine enables optical control of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in neural networks. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 6(5):701-7. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00030. Epub 2015 Mar 27.

Butler VJ, Branicky R, Yemini E, Liewald JF, Gottschalk A, Kerr RA, Chklovskii DB, Schafer WR. (2015 Jan 6) A consistent muscle activation strategy underlies crawling and swimming in Caenorhabditis elegans. J. R. Soc. Interface 12(102)

Publications 2014

Steuer Costa W, Liewald JF, Gottschalk A. (2014) Photoactivated Adenylyl Cyclases as Optogenetic Modulators of Neuronal Activity. in: Photswitching Proteins (Sidney Cambridge, Editor). Springer Protocols. Methods Mol. Biol. 1148, p. 161-75

Cohen E, Chatzigeorgiou M, Husson SJ, Steuer Costa W, Gottschalk A, Schafer WR, Treinin M. (2014) C. elegans nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for nociception. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 59C: 85-96

AzimiHashemi N, Erbguth K, Vogt A, Riemensperger T, Rauch E, Woodmansee D, Nagpal J, Brauner M, Sheves M, Fiala A, Kattner L, Trauner D, Hegemann P, Gottschalk A*, Liewald J*. (2014) Synthetic retinal analogs modify the spectral and kinetic characteristics of microbial rhodopsin optogenetic tools. Nat. Communic. 5: 5810

Gottschalk A. (2014) Optogenetische Analyse der Funktion neuronaler Netzwerke und der synaptischen Transmission in Caenorhabditis elegans. Neuroforum 4/2014: 278-286

Gottschalk A. (2014) Optogenetic analyses of neuronal network function and synaptic transmission in Caenorhabditis elegans. e-Neuroforum 5: 77-85

Publications 2013

de Bono M, Schafer WR, Gottschalk A. (2013) Optogenetic actuation, inhibition, modulation and readout for neuronal networks generating behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In "Optogenetics"; Hegemann P, Sigrist S (editors), De Gruyter, Dahlem Workshop Reports

Kittelmann M, Liewald JF, Hegermann J, Schultheis C, Brauner M, Steuer Costa W, Wabnig S, Eimer S, and Gottschalk A.  (2013) In vivo synaptic recovery following optogenetic hyperstimulation. PNAS 110: E3007-E3016

Smith CJ, O’Brien T, Chatzigeorgiou M, Spencer WC, Feingold-Link E, Husson SJ, Hori S, Mitani S, Gottschalk A, Schafer WR, Miller DM. (2013) Sensory Neuron Fates Are Distinguished by a Transcriptional Switch that Regulates Dendrite Branch Stabilization. Neuron 79: 266–280

Husson SJ, Gottschalk A and Leifer AM. (2013) Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity in C. elegans: from synapse to circuits and behavior. Biol. Cell 105(6): 235-50

Akerboom, J, Carreras Calderon N, Tian L, Wabnig S, Prigge M, Tolö J, Gordus A, Orger MB, Severi KE, Macklin JJ, Patel R, Pulver SR, Wardill TJ, Fischer E, Schüler C, Chen T-W, Sarkisyan, KS, Marvin JS, Bargmann, CI, Kim DK, Kügler S, Lagnado L, Hegemann P, Gottschalk A, Schreiter ER and Looger LL. (2013) Genetically encoded calcium indicators for multi-color neural activity imaging in combination with optogenetics. Front. Molec. Neurosci. 6: 2

Publications 2012

Sasidharan N, Sumakovic M, Hannemann M, Hegermann J, Liewald JF, Olendrowitz C, Koenig S, Grant BD, Rizzoli SO, Gottschalk A and Eimer S. (2012) RAB5 and RAB10 cooperate to regulate neuropeptide release in Caenorhabditis elegans. PNAS 109: 18944-9

Erbguth K, Prigge M, Schneider F, Hegemann P and Gottschalk A. (2012)           Bimodal activation of different neuron classes with the spectrally red-shifted Channelrhodopsin chimera C1V1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE 7: e46827

Schmitt C, Schultheis C, Pokala N, Husson SJ, Liewald JF, Bargmann, CI and Gottschalk A. (2012) Specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 in single neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE 7: e43164

Brieke C, Rohrbach F, Gottschalk A, Mayer G and Heckel A. (2012)
Light controlled tools. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51: 8446-8476

Husson S, Steuer Costa W, Schmitt C and Gottschalk A. (2012)
Keeping track of worm trackers.

Husson SJ, Liewald JF, Schultheis C, Stirman JN, Lu H and Gottschalk A. (2012)     Microbial light-activatable proton pumps as neuronal inhibitors to functionally dissect neuronal networks in C. elegans. PLoS ONE 7: e40937

Husson S, Steuer Costa W, Wabnig S, Stirman JN, Watson JD, Spencer WC, Akerboom J, Looger LL, Treinin M, Miller III DM, Lu H and Gottschalk A. (2012)
Optogenetic analysis of a nociceptor neuron and network reveals ion channels acting downstream of primary sensors.
Curr. Biol. 22: 743-752.

Stirman J, Crane M, Husson S, Gottschalk A and Lu H. (2012) 
A multispectral optical illumination system with precise spatiotemporal control for the manipulation of optogenetic reagents.
Nat. Prot. 7: 207-220.

Publications 2011

Vidal-Gadea A, Topper S, Young L, Crisp A, Kressin L, Elbel E, Maples T, Brauner M, Erbguth K, Axelrod A, Gottschalk A, Siegel D, Pierce-Shimomura J. (2011) 
C. elegans selects distinct crawling and swimming gaits via dopamine and serotonin. 
PNAS 108: 17504-17509.

Schultheis C, Brauner M, Liewald JF, Gottschalk A.
Optogenetic analysis of GABAB receptor signalling in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons.
J. Neurophysiol. 106: 817-827. Epub 2011 May 25.

Schultheis C, Liewald JF, Bamberg, E, Nagel G, Gottschalk A.
Optogenetic long-term manipulation of behavior and animal development.
PLoS One 6(4): e18766.

Stirman J, Crane M, Husson S, Wabnig S, Schultheis C, Gottschalk A*, Lu H*.  (*corresponding authors)
Real-time multimodal optical control of neurons and muscles in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans.
Nat. Methods. 8:153-8. Epub 2011 Jan 16.

Weissenberger S, Schultheis C, Liewald J, Erbguth K, Nagel G, Gottschalk A.
PACα - an optogenetic tool for in vivo manipulation of cellular cAMP levels, neurotransmitter release, and behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.
J. Neurochem. 116(4):616-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07148.x. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Publications 2010

Stirman J, Brauner M, Gottschalk A, Lu H.
High-throughput study of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction enabled by optogenetics and microfluidics.
J. Neurosci Meth. 191(1):90-3. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

Publications 2009-2003

Almedom RB, Liewald J, Hernando G, Schultheis C, Rayes D, Pan J, Schedletzky T, Hutter H, Bouzat C, Gottschalk A.
An ER-resident membrane protein complex regulates nicotinic actylcholine receptor subunit composition at the synapse.
EMBO J. 2009 Sep 2;28(17):2636-49. Epub 2009 Jul 16.

Biala Y, Liewald JF, Ben-Ami HC, Elishevitz E, Shteingauz A, Gottschalk A, Treinin M.
The Conserved RIC-3 Coiled-Coil Domain Mediates Receptor specific Interactions with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Mar;20(5):1419-27. Epub 2008 Dec 30.

Liewald JF, Brauner M, Stephens GJ, Bouhours M, Schultheis C, Zhen M, Gottschalk A.
Optogenetic analysis of synaptic function.
Nat. Meth. (2008) 5: 895-902.

Mahoney TR, Luo S, Round EK, Brauner M, Gottschalk A, Thomas JH,  Nonet ML.
Intestinal Signaling to GABAergic Neurons Regulates a Rhythmic Behavior in C. elegans.
PNAS (2008) 105: 16350-16355.

Zhang F, Wang LP, Brauner M, Liewald JF, Kay K, Watzke N, Wood PG, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Gottschalk A, Deisseroth K.
Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry.
Nature. 2007 Apr 5;446(7136):633-9.

Gottschalk A.
Der lichtgesteuerte Fadenwurm: Einblicke in das Nervensystem von C. elegans
Forschung Frankfurt 1/2007.

Eimer S, Gottschalk A, Hengartner M, Horvitz HR, Richmond J, Schafer WR,  Bessereau J-L.
Regulation of nicotinic receptor rafficking by the transmembrane Golgi protein UNC-50.
EMBO J. (2007) 26: 4313-4323.

Gottschalk A, Schafer WR.
Visualization of integral and peripheral cell surface proteins in live Caenorhabditis elegans.
J. Neurosci. Meth. 2006 Jun 30;154(1-2):68-79. Epub 2006 Feb 8.

Gottschalk A*, Almedom RB, Schedletzky T, Anderson SD, Yates III JR, Schafer WR.*
Identification and characterization of novel nicotinic receptor-associated proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.        
EMBO J. (2005) advanced online publication; doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600741. (*shared corresponding authorship)

Nagel G, Brauner M, Liewald J, Adeishvili N, Bamberg E, Gottschalk A.
Light-activation of Channelrhodopsin-2 in excitable cells of Caenorhabditis elegans triggers rapid behavioral responses.
Curr. Biol. 15, (2005), 2279-2284.

McKay J, Raizen D, Gottschalk A, Schafer WR, Avery L.
eat-2 and eat-18 are Required for Nicotinic Neurotransmission in the Caenorhabditis elegans Pharynx
Genetics, 166 (2004), 161-69.

Pre C. elegans (yeast spliceosomes: 1997 – 2002)

Mougin A, Gottschalk A, Fabrizio P, Lührmann R, Branlant, C.
Direct probing of RNA structure and RNA-protein interactions in purified HeLa cell's and yeast spliceosomal U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP particles.
J. Mol. Biol., 317 (2002), 631-49.

Gottschalk A, Kastner B, Lührmann R, Fabrizio P.
The yeast U5 snRNP coisolated with the U1 snRNP has an unexpected protein composition and includes the splicing factor Aar2p.
RNA, 7, (2001), 1554-65.

Gottschalk A, Bartels C, Neubauer G, Lührmann R, Fabrizio P.
A novel yeast U2 snRNP protein, Snu17p, is required for the first catalytic step of splicing and for progression of spliceosome assembly.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 21 (2001), 3037-46.

Gottschalk A, Neubauer G, Banroques J, Lührmann R, Fabrizio P.
Identification by mass spectrometry and functional analysis of novel proteins of the yeast [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP.
EMBO J., 18 (1999), 4535-48.

Puig O, Gottschalk A, Fabrizio P, Séraphin B.
Interaction of the U1 snRNP with nonconserved intronic sequences affects 5' splice site selection.
Genes Dev., 13 (1999), 569-580.

Watkins NJ, Gottschalk A, Neubauer G, Kastner B, Fabrizio P, Mann M, Lührmann R.
Cbf5p, a potential pseudouridine synthase, and Nhp2p, a putative RNA- binding protein, are present together with Gar1p in all H BOX/ACA-motif snoRNPs and constitute a common bipartite structure.
RNA, 4 (1998), 1549-68.

Gottschalk A, Tang J, Puig O, Salgado J, Neubauer G, Colot HV, Mann M, Séraphin B, Rosbash M, Lührmann R, Fabrizio P.
A comprehensive biochemical and genetic analysis of the yeast U1 snRNP reveals five novel proteins.
RNA, 4 (1998), 374-93.

Neubauer G, Gottschalk A, Fabrizio P, Séraphin B, Lührmann R, Mann M.
Identification of the proteins of the yeast U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex by mass spectrometry.
Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 94 (1997), 385-90.